The National Highways Network of India measures over 70,934 km as of 2010, including over 1,000 km of limited access expressways. Out of 71,000 km of National Highways 15,000 plus km are 4 or 6 lanes and remaining 50,000 km are 2 lanes. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is the nodal agency responsible for building, upgrading and maintaining most of the national highway’s network.

The National Highways Development Project (NHDP) is a major effort to expand and upgrade the network of highways. NHAI often uses a public-private partnership model for highway development, maintenance and toll-collection. National highways constituted about 2% of all the roads in India, but carried about 40% of the total road traffic as of 2010. The majority of existing national highways are two-lane roads (one lane in each direction), though much of this is being expanded to four[1]lanes, and some to six or eight lanes.

Some sections of the network are toll roads. Over 30,000 km of new highways are planned or under construction as part of the NHDP, as of 2011. This includes over 2,600 km of expressways currently under construction.

Q i. What is the current measurement of expressways under construction in India?
(a) 30,000 km (b) 2,600 km (c) 15,000 km (d) 1,000 km
Q ii. What is the responsibility of the NHAI?
(a) building, upgrading and maintaining of National Highways
(b) control of National Highways
(c) planning of National Highways
(d) expansion of National Highways
Q iii. What is the measurement of two-lane National Highways of India?
(a) 61,000 km (b) 50,000 km (c) 15,000 km (d) 71,000 km
Q iv. What percentage of roads in India are National Highways?
(a) 30% (b) 4% (c) 2% (d) 40%
Q v. The majority of National Highways in India have
(a) six-lanes (b) eight-lanes (c) two-lanes (d) four-lanes


The Wright brothers did not have to look far for ideas when building their airplane, they studied birds. The act of copying from nature to address a design problem is not new, but over the last decade the practice has moved from obscure scientific journals to the mainstream.

The term ‘biomimicry’, popularized by American natural-sciences writer Janine Benyus in the late 1990s, refers to innovation that take their inspiration from flora and fauna. Biomimicry advocates argue that with 3.8 billion years of research and development, evolution has already solved many of the challenges humans now encounter.

Although we often see nature as something we mine for resources, biomimicry views nature as a mentor. From all around the globe, there are countless instances where natural sources have served as inspiration for inventions that promise to transform every sector of society.

One such instance occurred in 1941 when Swiss engineer, George de Mestral was out hunting with his dog one day when he noticed sticky burrs, with their hundred tiny hooks, had attached themselves to his pants and his dog’s fur. These were his inspiration for Velcro.

Q i. The airplane was inspired by
(a) plants (b) birds (c) animals (d) flies
Q ii. Biomimicry refers to designs that
(a) transformed society (b) are based on scientific engineering
(c) are inspired by natural things (d) arise out of man’s creativity
Q iii. Biomimicry views the natural world as a
(a) mine field of ideas (b) mentor (c) mine for resources (d) source of inspiration
Q iv. What has helped solve many of the challenges encountered by man?
(a) Evolution (b) Innovation (c) Biomimicry (d) Invention
Q v. The two instances of biomimicry mentioned in the passage are
(a) birds and burrs (b) copying and innovating (c) flora and fauna (d) airplane and Velcro